As there are many historical places found in Pakistan. One of them is Mohenjo-daro and it is situated in Sindh district Larkana.Mohenjo-daro is an ancient place, almost five thousand years ago, but it was discovered in 1922. Basically, the word Mohenjo-daro means “The Mound Of Dead”.
The ruins tell us that, how the this ancient place was designed? And the People of this city were very hard working.They grew Lentils, barley, sesame, and peas for eating. A piece of cloth was also found there and it shows that the people of Mohenjo-daro had known how to grow cotton and made cloth. Mohenjo daro_Historical place of Pakistan
Mohenjo-Daro is one of the largest yet oldest major cities in the Indus Valley region.
The city is divided into two districts: the “Citadel” and the lower city. One of the most interesting buildings in the Citadel is known as the Great Granary, which appears to be a large grain storage space with multiple sets of platforms. It was thought to have been used by the Harappans during times of famine or drought.
The people in Mohenjo-daro built their homes by bricks or mud and every home had a bathroom. Scientists found a bath, which look like a huge swimming pool. According to the scientists, it could be used for religious activities and ceremonies.There is also remains of a big hall with many pillars, which people think that this might be a kind of government building. Furthermore, the roads were very clean and their used be to sewerage lines as well. They took the dirty water outside of the city. So, that’s why the city always remained clean.
The city of Mohenjo-daro, now 2 miles (3 km) from the Indus, from which it seems to have been protected, in antiquity as today, by artificial barriers, was laid out with remarkable regularity into something like a dozen blocks, or “islands,” each about 1,260 feet (384 metres) from north to south and 750 feet (228 metres) from east to west, subdivided by straight or doglegged lanes.
The central block on the western side was built up artificially to a dominating height of 20 to 40 feet (6 to 12 metres) with mud and mud brick and was fortified to an ascertained extent by square towers of baked brick. Buildings on the high summit included an elaborate bath or tank surrounded by a veranda, a large residential structure, a massive granary, and at least two aisles halls of assembly. In the lower town were substantial courtyard houses indicating a considerable middle class. Most houses had small bathrooms and, like the streets, were well-provided with drains and sanitation. Brick stairs indicate at least an upper story or a flat, habitable roof. The walls were originally plastered with mud, no doubt to reduce the deleterious effect of the salts that are contained by the bricks and react destructively to varying heat and humidity.
The people of Mohenjo-daro made very nice pottery and toy, they know how to use cows and bullocks for ploughing the fields. In 1940, an archaeologist discovered 39 human skeletons in the Mohenjo-daro.
The people of Mohenjo daro built private wells over generations for the need of large households or neighborhood. Today the wells look like towers after excavation.
In 1922 some villagers were living near the mound and they saw pieces of broken pots. After that, they took the broken potteries to the experts, when the experts had checked potteries, they understood that, there is a city underneath the mound. They dug out the once destroyed city. According to them, this city remained there for almost 2 thousand years, and suddenly the city was destroyed and all its citizens were either disappeared or killed.
Mohenjo-daro was perhaps an administrative center. There was no obvious central monarchy and maybe governed as a city-state by elected officials. Archaeologists have unearthed the seals and weights signifying regulated trade and commerce.
The reason for Mohenjo daro being abandoned in 1900 BC is yet to be discovered. Maybe the rivers changed course or dried up or the monsoon changed course or humans overused the water and natural resource. It is said that history repeats itself. We must learn from the mistakes of our fore fathers that resulted in the abandonment of a thriving civilization.